The Research fields of the Biological Faculty departments
From the earliest days of the Department one of the main area of research was to study the mechanisms of vitamins interaction in the body. Due to the existence of radioisotope laboratory staff of the department were able to study the dynamics of distribution and metabolism in the body 14C thiamine, niacin-14C, 35S-lipoate, 14C-biotin, riboflavin-14C. A significant contribution to the vitamins penetration mechanisms through biological membranes theory gave the research of labeled vitamins and their metabolites accumulation in the mitochondria. It has been demonstrated that this process is carried out by specific proteins. A special attention in the department’ research were devoted to the problem of vitamins interaction in the animal organism. Since 1980, the Department initiated a new research direction for the study of not coenzyme functions of vitamins. At the same time the research of tetanospasmin binding mechanisms in the body, the gerontogenesis mechanisms, investigation of extreme factors influence on biochemical processes in the body, the study of neurochemistry certain issues and so on were conducted.
The department studies in recent years are related to the themes of "The regulation of metabolism of keto acids and amino acids, vitamins and catabolites of some biologically active substances in the body in a variety of experimental pathology" (head is associate professor V. V. Zaporozhchenko) and "Regulation of bioenergy and plastic processes in embryonic cells of mammals" (head is professor S. A. Petrov).
The content of vitamin C, B1, B2, et al., as well as their metabolites hascoenzyme and non-coenzyme activities, which regulates their dependent enzymes. The intensity of these processes depends on the research of the season, as well as the state of the body by the action of the physiological, pathological and stress factors. Effect of hypoxia a closed space, the action of heavy metals and carbon tetrachloride in animals caused similar biochemical changes in the concentration and ratio of active metabolites of vitamins and marker enzymes. Pretreatment with vitamins or use of some dietary supplements has partially or fully restored the indicators. For the first time found that nicotinic acid reduces aminotransferases’ activity (AST, ALT) in vitro experiments 3-8 times, which greatly exceeds the effects obtained in the experiments in vivo. It was found that the introduction of a therapeutic dose tiaminbromid before confined space hypoxia reduces the activity of ALT and AST compared with the rats in the control group and the individuals who were exposed to hypoxia without introducing tiaminbromid. The data can be viewed as evidence of possible competitive relationships between vitamins PP and B6 and pyridoxine and tiaminbromid on the stages of tissue proteidization.
Binding of thiamine and its derivatives with partially purified cathepsin L occurs by reacting pyrimidine with part of the enzyme molecule. Thiamine and its metabolites except tiamintiol, activated with purified cathepsin L by grouping thiazole ring shape.
It is shown that transplantation leads to increased enzyme activity in all tissues examined as the graft and the recipient. Allotransplantation ща embryonic muscle tissue increases the protein content in tissues at any stage of the study. Allotransplantation leads to stimulation of the processes of accumulation of ascorbic acid in fetal tissue. The total level of ascorbic acid in the fetal tissue in the abdominal and femoral, much higher than adult tissue. These results indicate that the tested enzymes can be used as marker enzymes of graft survival. These results will be extremely useful for the development of methods for the use of embryonic stem cells in medicine
In 2010, the Department of Biochemistry has been the organizer of the X Ukrainian Biochemical Congress.
Department of Botany
Two areas can be distinguished in scientific work of the Department of Botany: a study of the composition of the aquatic and terrestrial flora, as well as knowledge of the physiological and biochemical processes inherent in the plants. Within these areas it focuses on the systematics and practical use of the sea and the estuary of algae, fungi, lichens, identification of rare and endangered plant species in the region, the study dendroflora, synanthropic flora and quarantine weeds, plant immunity to diseases, the study of the impact of trace elements and biologically active substances plants and the impact of long-term storage of seeds of different crops on their viability.
Employees of the department took part in the program TACIS «WW / SCRE1 / No.1 Danube Lakes: Sustainable restoration and conservation of natural ecosystems and the state", in the expeditions to study the flora of the Zmiiniy island and the surrounding waters, in drawing up the inventory of flora Odessa region and inventory of natural-reserve Fund of Odessa region, the study of the variety of vegetation of the Black Sea coast of estuaries and adjacent waters. A separate area of work is the study and preservation of the herbarium of the Department, which has the status of a National heritage.
Studies that are held in the department in recent years related to the theme "Studying of diversity, environmental and structural and functional characteristics of phyto- and mycobiota features of natural and artificial ecosystems of the South West of Ukraine with the purpose of conservation and sustainable use" (head is professor F. P. Tkachenko).
In recent years, the flora investigation and analysis of the species composition of vascular plants, algae, macro- and micromycetes of national nature parks and other areas of natural reserve fund, the objects, separate settlements and other local floras, which are perspective for preserve in South West of Ukraine were carried out. Amended lists of plants for Tuzly Lagoons National Nature Park, Lower Dniester National Nature Park. The dendroflora of Izmail fortress (Izmail) have been studied, the composition of Kuchurgan river microphytobenthos have been analyzed, the study of the fatty acid composition of total lipids for marine and estuary populations of Cystoseira barbata (Gooden. Et Woodw.) C. Agardh and marine population C. crinita (Desf.) Bory have been conducted.
Zygnematales algae checklist for North-western Black Sea water bodies was created and published, the species diversity and distribution of obligate parasitic fungi in the territories of a number of objects of Nature reserve fund of the Odessa region, in particular the "Danube Biosphere Reserve" of NASU, National Park "Tuzly Lagoons National Nature Park" and "Bug Gard", the regional landscape park "Tiligulskiy" (Odessa and Mykolaiv region), and parks, monuments of landscape gardening art of local importance: the "Dniester" park, "City garden" and the A. S. Pushkin park were investigated.
The stimulating effect of drugs Radifarm, Novosil, Apron, Mikroplant on biometric and physical and biochemical indicators of some crops (strawberries, sunflowers, cucumbers) in the south of the Odessa region has been displayed. The differences of morphometric parameters of the ear and seed productivity of emmer wheat in the phase of full ripeness, in comparison with the varieties of soft and durum wheat have been determined. The authentic herbarium specimens from the herbarium of the Department of Botany have been analyzed, and information about these collections was disclosed.
In recent years the Department of Botany has organized the following scientific events:
The congresses of scientific societies:
- ХІІ Congress of Ukrainian Botanical Society (2006)
- The scientific conferences:
- Conference of young scientists-botanists of Ukraine «Issues of Botany and Ecology" with the participation of young scientists from other countries (2003)
- International Conferences of Young Scientists „Biodiversity. Ecology. Adaptation. Evolution.” (2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013)
- International Symposium "Management and conservation of the coast of north-western part of Black Sea" (1996).
Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology
The Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology works in several scientific areas that focus on the problems of phylogenetic and ontogenetic mechanisms of adaptation on the different levels of organization of living matter and the large number of objects. One of the important directions is the molecular genetic analysis of the gene pool of Ukraine winter wheat and related cereals. Another stream is the definition of adaptation, polymorphism and functional status of gene-enzyme systems of animal and plant facilities include a Drosophila melanogaster, some Black Sea aquatic, medicines basidiomycetes etc. The expression of structural genes of enzymes and other proteins, the phenomena of interaction and co-adaptation action by selecting of the natural and experimental populations of plants and animals are exploring. The significant of expressive structural genes of plants in natural and artificial polyploidy are important task. Among the scientific interest of the department are cytoembriology and cytogenetic displays of quantitative traits in plants, as well as the monitoring of mutagenic effects of pesticides on model objects and crops.
Recent studies of the Department related to the topic "Genetic and Biochemical, physiological and morphometric features of Rapana venosa of the Northern areas of the Black Sea" (supervisor Prof. V. Totskiy), "The dynamics of the genetic structure of natural and experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster under the impact of environmental factors" (supervisor Prof. V. Totskiy), "Genetic mechanisms of adaptation of cereals for the evolutionary transformation genome" (supervisor Associate Sichnyak O.L.), "Genetic polymorphism and adaptive potential of organisms under different conditions of existence" (supervisor Professor S. Chebotar).
The new data on the level of polymorphism of loci of hydrolases and oxidoreductases of gastropods were received during the study of gastropods brine Rapana venosa from the waters of the North-western Black Sea. The peculiarities of antioxidant system and hydrolytic enzymes of digestive brine depending of different seasons, in particular in the cold peace state were obtained for the first time. A comparative analysis of the adaptive capacity of brine and its main object food – mussels were studed for the first time else. The description of morphometric parameters, age and sex structure groups of R. venosa simultaneously in different waters of the North-western Black Sea were done. It is shown that the formation of brine morphotypes, age and sex structure of gangs depends on the food base. The features of the functioning of the antioxidant system of R. venosa dependence of the system on age, gender, and environmental conditions. The genetic structure of different groups of brine waters of the North-western Black Sea with isozyme markers were elucidated. These groups despite their different morphotype, are part of a population was found. The results contribute to the deepening of the existing concepts of population genetics and ecological genetics.
The specific trypsin-like peptidehydrolases in extracts of tissue of larvae, pupae and adult D. mercatorum, D. virilis, D. melanogaster and mutant strains has established. During Drosophila ontogenesis there are significant changes of total protein, which depend on the level of specific activity of enzymes, including trypsin-like. In postembryonic stages of these types of significant changes in the manifestation trypsin-like specific activity of peptidehydrolases, with a maximum (3.40 relative units - virilis) expression in its larval stage and minimal (0.02 relative units - mercatorum) at the pupa stage. At all stages of development in postembryonic mutant vestigial observed maximum, compared with mutants Bar and Cinnabar, the level of display of trypsin-like enzymes, indicating a more intense expression of gene enzymatic system. In mutant Bar on pupae and adult stages of flies observed low level of display trypsin-like enzyme compared to wild-type, indicating significant changes in the regulation of proteolysis during histolysis larval tissues and imago histoneogenesis.
The frequency of recombination in the chromosome 2 mutant b-cn-vg Drosophila melanogaster at sites b-cn and cn-vg was studied. The frequency of crossingover at the site of b-cn is 7.42%, and the area cn-vg is 12,55%, which differs from the theoretically calculated data were found. At the same time, we know that according to the location marker mutations in linkage group 2 section b-cn is situated near centromere area that may affect the recombination activity of losing its.
The resistance to Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium graminearum of wheat hybrids with wheat-Thinopyrum incomplete amphydiploides were investigated. Toxins fungus reduce vigor and seed germination, reduce the size-mass characteristics of germs. Some families of hybrids are more stable than the parental forms. Hybrids of NAD (T. aestivum x Th. ponticum) are more stable than hybrids of NAD (T. aestivum x Th. Intermedium).
It was found that the wheat average index of herbicide tolerance was significantly higher than barley’s. For fungicidal action of drugs, by contrast, has been a trend toward greater tolerance of barley. The results regarding the action of herbicides were quite expected, since polyploidy is of great adaptive significance. One of the active ingredients of each of the investigated substance class of fungicides are triazoles. They are able to change the traffic barrier function of membranes of plant cells to cause reduction of the speed of the cytoplasm. As a result, larger in size compared with diploid cells barley, wheat cells suffer more from the effects of triazoles fungicides. Thus the action of some modern anthropogenic environmental factors may reduce the benefits of polyploidy nothing.
The changes of morphological features of short stemmed unique varieties of soft wheat Kooperatorka, 3 Odessa, Odessa 51, Stepniak occurring in plants as a result of cultivation in drought conditions modulated by adding in artificial media PEG-6000 were obtained. The existence of correlative relationships between short stemmed genes Rht in wheat genotype and resistance of plants to drought conditions exist. It is shown that resistance to osmotic stress in plants is not related to quantitative and qualitative composition Rht genes in their genotype. The using of complex growth media for plants with seed germination under conditions of osmotic stress is not justified and does not provide a more precise results of experiments. The data are useful for assessing the starting material for wheat breeding.
In recent years the Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology was organized the following scientific events:
- II International scientific conference «Drosophila in the Experimental Genetics and Biology», 2010
- XI International scientific conference «Factors in Experimental Evolution of Organisms», 2016
- VI Congress of the All-Ukrainian Association of Plant Biologists, 2016
Department of Hydrobiology and General Ecology
Scientific interests of staff of the department refer to wide research problems connected with the assessment of the state of water bodies of North West Black Sea. These are long-term complex study of fauna and flora of Odessa Gulf and adjacent areas of the Black Sea. In this direction the studying of zoobenthos and phytobenthos is going on. Atlas on benthic diatom algae of the Black Sea was published.
Nowadays the researches on revealing of assessment criteria of state of population of commercial species of fish are conducted. To accomplish this classic ichthyological and modern molecular and genetic methods are used. On the department the method of mathematical modeling of dynamic parameters of commercial fish population is elaborated with the aim of assessing of their abundance and biomass.
The most important projects of the department are:
Complex study of the adjacent water area of the Zmyiny Island and international TACIS project “The Danube Lakes: sustainable restoration and natural ecosystem state conservation”.
Recent years the study of macrozoobenthos and carp fish of the Danube Lakes has been done. In the frame of this work a comprehensive study was conducted and a mathematical model on evaluation of the potential of abundance and biomass of commercial species carp fish populations of the Danube Lakes was developed "Development of a mathematical model of carp fish populations structure of the Danube Lakes for prediction their commercial exploitation" (under supervision of associate professor V. V. Zamorov).
In the monitoring mode of research a new complete data on the taxonomic characteristics of macrozoobenthos of the lakes in modern hydroecological conditions has been provided. The conclusions about relative stability of the ecosystems of lakes were obtained. For the first time over the past few decades zooplankton productivity and magnitude of the potential biomass of plankton-eating fish have been calculated for the Danube Lakes. Values of average catches of fish-planktophages in recent years and potential productivity of lakes, which has been calculated by feed base estimation, allow us to recommend additional fish-stocking these waters with white carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis.
The data on the genetic population structure of carp fish in the Danube lakes allow us to optimize the industrial process of exploitation of these species. According to the results of molecular genetic studies it was suggested that groupings of silver carp Carassius gibelio from the Cahul Lake and the Danube River can be considered as part of the same population, which is significantly different from the fish from the lake Kotlabuh which is related to other population. There are no other genetic differences in the groups of carp fish were found in the analyzed localities.
A mathematical algorithm as a model for the analysis of the dynamics of commercial fish stocks has been constructed. The basic indicators that describe to the dynamics of biomass and abundance of the industrial part of the population of studied species have been established. The parameters of the quantitative characteristics of the studied species of fish that can be obtained on the basis of the evaluation of commercial catches have been determined. Methods which are required for the calculation of these indicators and parameters in these conditions have been matched.
Based on the data the relationship between catch per refill unit and fishing intensity were analyzed and calculated values for the optimal operation of commercial herd have been calculated. Namely, there were calculated optimal for catching fish length, which corresponds to the largest accumulation of biomass. The maximum allowable catch, showing the maximum permissible level of industrial exploitation of the herd, not causing harm to the environment and preserving the population size has been estimated. On the basis of MS Excel spreadsheet processor were developed software that automates the time-consuming calculation of the assessment of industrial populations of fish ponds, due to the possibility of instantaneous automatic conversion of all data when the change of any component value. Using the obtained results allows fisheries enterprises to more effectively work to fish-stocking lakes to determine the volume of commercial fish catch, which means scientifically conduct fishing and rational use of aquatic resources the lakes.
The resulting hydrobiological and ichthyological data would be useful for professionals – ichthyologists and hydrobiologists in research on relevant topics, as well as for representatives of institutions of the State Agency of Fisheries of Ukraine for their practice.
In recent years the Department of Hydrobiology and General Ecology organized the following scientific events:
- The scientific conferences:
- International scientific conferences «Readings in memory of A. A. Brauner» (1997, 2000, 2003, 2007, 2013)
- ІV International ichthyological scientific-practical conference «Current problems of theoretical and practical ichthyology» (2011)
- International Summer School «Keeping fish and marine mammals in artificial conditions» (2012, 2013)
Department of Zoology
Scientific development of teachers and employees of the department are closely connected with the study of biological diversity. Traditionally, the Department's sphere of interests is the study of zoogeography and taxonomy of arthropod animals, particularly spiders, mites and insects. Ongoing study of the problems of optimization of natural-reserved network, expansion of natural-reserved fund of the region by creating new and increase the area of the existing areas under conservation is one of the scientific directions. Analysis and systematization of all the scientific, technical and application materials on the problems of study and preservation of species diversity, nature conservation, allowed to develop and implement research projects, which are known in Ukraine and abroad.
The Department studies in recent years are associated with the theme "To find out the current state of biodiversity of Northwest Black Sea Animals" (head is professor V. P. Stoylovskiy).
In a process of studying the migratory movements of Palearctic Charadriiform birds through the Azov-Black Sea region, there were identified the main mites groups of waders feather cover. Three new for science feather mites species have been described. The mechanisms of relations of certain mites species with the relevant host species have been described; that allowed to reveal monoxenic, oligoxenic and polyxenic mites species from the point of view of hostal specialization. During studies of bird migrations through Zmiiny Island the dominance of 5 passerine species was found (thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia), chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita), willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus), eurasian blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla), red-breasted flycatcher (Ficedula parva) accounted for about 60 % of all captured birds). The results are useful for the development of schemes of natural resources and the optimal measures for their protection.
The monitoring studies of the number and spatial distribution in the region of the main orders of terrestrial and aquatic animals are constantly conducting. Particular attention is paid to the dynamics of the number of game and protected animals under the current legislation.
In recent years the Department of Zoology has organized the following scientific events:
- International conference on Waders (1992)
- International scientific conference "Development of zoological studies at Odessa University. Academician D.K. Tretyakov and his scientific school" (1999)
- International scientific conference of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Union (2000, 2002, 2007)
- VI International conference on Cormorants (2003)
- International conference "Population status and control on population of birds migration of Central and Eastern Europe" (2003)
- VIII Conference of experts on goose (organized by Wetlands International - 2004)
- International conference "Recent advances in zoological sciences (dedicated to the 120 anniversary of I. Puzanov and the 140th anniversary of Zoology Department of Mechnikov National University of Odessa)" (2005)
- Scientific meeting:
- Meeting of the Azov-Black Sea Ornithological Working Group (1994, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004)
- International Meeting of wetlands and their role in the protection of birds (2000)
- International Symposium "Management and conservation of the coast of North-Western Black Sea Region" (1996)
The Department of Microbiology, Virology and Biotechnology
To date, the current research directions of the Department of Microbiology, Virology and Biotechnology are varied and cover almost all fields of microbiology, as well as agriculture, healthcare, environment. The Biotechnology Research and Training Center where research and development are carried out by state order has been established on the base of the Department and problem research laboratories of the University.
The Department's studies in recent years are related to following projects: "The study of the functioning of intercellular communication systems of microorganisms in the presence of synthetic and natural bioactive compounds" (project leader is professor T. O. Philippova), "Scientific basis for improvement of health food raw materials and its products safety control" (project leader is professor V. O. Ivanytsia), "Molecular-biological properties of pathogenic bacteria of the genera Agrobacterium, Erwinia, Ralstonia, their bacteriocins, plasmids and bacteriophages, causing the killer activity" (project leader is professor V. O. Ivanytsia), "To study the diversity and interaction mechanisms of lactobacillus from different geographical areas with other organisms and to develop biological products for stimulation of plant growth and fermentation" (project leader is professor V. O. Ivanytsia), "Interaction of lactic acid bacteria with agricultural plants" (project leader is professor V. O. Ivanytsia), "Metagenomic analysis of the biological diversity of the Black sea microbiota and its biotechnological potential" (project leader is professor V. O. Ivanytsia), "Development of scientific and methodical approaches and biotechnology for remediation of coastal waters from chemical and microbiological contamination" (project leader is associate professor T. V. Gudzenko), "Investigation of the biological properties of medicinal mushrooms and their relationship with arthropods and microorganisms" (project leader is professor V. O. Ivanytsia).
The complex data about the possibility of regulation of communication process in bacteria such as biofilm formation and synthesis of secondary metabolites, including those that are important for practical use by some synthetic compounds (porphyrin analogues and sulfonamides) has been obtained. For Pseudomonas sp. the competition between synthetic regulators and signaling molecules of quorum sensing system have been studied and the components of the system which have changed the functional activity in the presence of tested compounds have been detected. The data on the interaction of Pseudomonas sp. and lactic acid bacteria with phytopathogenic fungi and bacteriophages under the influence of intercellular communication system inhibitors have been obtained.
As a result of experimental studies of contaminant microorganisms of the genus Bacillus in a variety of foods and raw materials the genetic characteristics of these microorganisms have been analyzed. The complex scientific data about the domination of bacteria among mesophilic microorganisms in the studied species of vegetable raw materials have been obtained during the project implementation. It has been shown that those bacteria are represented predominantly by a group of aerobic spore-forming bacilli with 9 morphological types of colonies. The composition of the microbiota of vegetable raw materials and canned food with signs of spoilage has been identified: 13 strains were assigned to the species Lysinibacillus sphaericus-GC subgroup E, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus-GC subgroup A, Bacillus pumilus-GC subgroup on the basis of their morphological, cultural, physiological, biochemical characteristics, as well as the fatty acid composition of the cell. The determination of genetic sequences of bacilli strains confirms the results of the study of their physiological and biochemical properties, which have indicated genus and species identity of investigated strains. The species of three strains of bacilli which were identified as questionable beetween species Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis (strains P90-4, P90-9 and P90-1) by their fatty acid chromatographic data was confirmed by conducting PCR using primers to sequences of bacilli. 40% of investigated strains contain plasmids of various sizes, which are represented by two groups: the small size plasmids – from 2 to 12 kb, and megaplasmids - approximately 200 kb.
The molecular-biological, biophysical and molecular-genetic properties of bacteria Erwinia, Ralstonia and Agrobacterium, their plasmids, macromolecular bacteriocins and bacteriophages have been investigated. It has been shown that Erwinia carotovora bacteriocins are characterized by great diversity of phage origin particles. The methods for purification of antagonistic substances and methods of cultivation of bacteria were optimized and developed. The strain-antagonist Alcaligenes faecalis was used to inhibit Agrobacterium sp. for the first time. As a result of 4 cycle rearing-inactivation the phage stock ZF40 rt2 / 4 containing a temperature resistant phage particles has been selected. It was shown that ZF40 bacteriophage of Erwinia carotovora has a unique genetic stability in contrast to the instability of the particles. The collection of pathogenic bacteria and their phages has been created.
A variety of lactobacilli from plants of different geographical areas (Ukraine, France, Thailand), their properties and mechanisms of their effects on other organisms were studied. It was shown that the best criterium for the identification of lactobacilli strains from different geographic areas was the presence of certain groups of plantaricin genes. The strains capable of fermenting fungal and plant products were selected by their biotechnological properties. The leaven preparation technology for the fermentation of mushroom and plant products was developed. The fermentation technology of fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom and vegetables using lactobacilli was elaborated.
The lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus and Enterococcus) of Ukrainian plants and plant products were isolated. The molecular biological, biochemical and probiotic properties of strains of lactic acid bacteria were studied and the most active strains were selected. Biologically active substances of strains with a stimulating effect on plants were Isolated and studied. The influence of strains and their biologically active substances on the immune system state and the growth of plants under the lactic acid bacteria introduction on the surface of the seeds, sprouts and young tomato, kalanchoe and wheat plants has been estimated.
For the first time the new data on the biological diversity of abyssal hydrogen sulfide and methanogenic sediments in the Black Sea areas in the Caucasus, the Crimea and Turkey (by the results of analysis of samples collected during an international expedition of RV «Meteor» (Germany) have been obtained. There were also obtained the data on the biological diversity of microorganisms in water and soil in the north-western part of the Black Sea shelf at RV «Mare Nigrum» (Romania), the data on a wide range of biological properties of heterotrophic bacteria and the degree of bacteria kinship using RAPD PCR and gas chromatography. The collection of marine microorganisms of different taxonomic groups was isolated. The system analysis of phylogenetic relationships of isolated strains was held. The techniques of cultivation of annamox and thiobacteria were improved.
The complex microbiological and chemical analysis of water and pore water of interstitial cavities of psammocontour zone in experimental areas of the Black Sea coastal zone was carried out for the first time. The content of opportunistic, sanitary-indicative microorganisms, allochthonous viruses; biogenic elements, the content of chemical toxicants and their genotoxic and mutagenic effects on the genome of isolated microorganisms has been estimated. For the first time the role of psammocontour zone microorganisms in the sea water purification from chemical toxicants and sanitary indicative microorganisms was determined. At the first time a new complex technology of bioremediation of the sea water based on the activation of the natural marine microbiota responsible for self-purification processes of the chemical and microbial contamination has been developed. For this purpose, the new strains of biochemically active bacteria-destructors (mineral oil, synthetic surfactants), which are good sorbents of heavy metal ions and demonstrate antagonistic properties have been isolated from seawater and interstitial pore waters of psammocontour zone of Zmiiniy Island, the coastal zone of the Odessa Bay near the Small Fountain Cape, Kovalevsky Dacha and 16th station of the Big Fountain. Identification of selected strains by classical methods, gas chromatography using the MIDI Sherlock automatic system of microorganism identification, RAPD-PCR method, by the detection of their physiological, molecular biological and biochemical properties has been carried out. For the first time microorganisms with multifunctional activity were selected by their biotechnological properties and also a complex of microorganisms active for the remediation of the aquatic environment from chemical pollutants and opportunistic bacteria was created. For the first time the optimum conditions and composition of nutrient medium for the cultivation of the individual components of complex microbial preparation were selected by the method of mathematical experiment planning. The technological regulations for the preparation production have been developed and its pilot batch has been prepared in the fermenter. For the first time the technology for the immobilization of microorganisms on the surface of the artificial flexible fabric materials has been designed. The laboratory studies using the developed complex microbial preparation have been conducted on the experimental models of psammocontour and biological filter on the artificial flexible fabric material such as "eyelash".
The adaptive properties of G. lucidum ONU F101 and A. auricula-judae F102 collection strains with practical importance in the cultivation have been clarified. It is found that the colony morphology of investigated basidiomycetes has wide modificational variability depending on the composition of the nutrient medium. This should be considered in the primary identification of the strains. The temperature regimes that allow the cultivation of vegetative mycelium of the strains have been determined. The optimum temperature was detected as 27 °C. The value of the growth coefficient and the morphology of colonies showed that the best substrates for the vegetative mycelium of G. lucidum were barley and buckwheat agars and for A. auricula-judae - potato-glucose and buckwheat agars. The number of carboxyl esterase isoforms of G. lucidum and A. auricula-judae mycelia differs significantly depending on the composition of the nutrient medium. Carboxyl esterases of A. auricula-judae have a greater variability than the those of G. lucidum. 7 forms of the enzyme were found in the mycelium of A. auricula-judae and two of them were constant while only five forms including two constant were detected in the mycelium of G. lucidum. The test strains have two common carboxyl esterase isoforms: constant form with Rf 0,510 and variable – with Rf 0,460. A methodology for the assessing the sustainability of basidiomycetes to pathogens is being developed.
The stability of collection medicinal basidiomycetes to pathogenic fungus Trichoderma viride has been determined. The technologies of the producing of fruiting bodies in the laboratory were desinged. Fruiting bodies of Ganoderma, Shii-take, Geritsiya and several strains of oyster mushrooms have been obtained. Their antibiotic capacity and the invluence on the pro- and eukaryotic organisms, as well as plant genome have been investigated.
The following scientific events were organized by the Department of Microbiology, Virology and biotechnology in recent years:
Meetings of scientific societies:
- Х meeting of microbiological Society of Ukraine (2004);
- International conference «Microbial biotechnology» (2006);
- International scientific conference for young scientist and students “Modern problems of microbiology and biotechnology’ (2007);
- III International ukrainian-poland Weigl conference „Microbiology serves to human” (2009)
- Ukrainian-poland conference "Modern questions of microbiology" (2009);
- International conference "Ecology and biogeochemical activity of microorganisms" (Odesa, 2010);
- II International scientific and applied conference “Modern resource saving technologies. Challenges and perspectives” (Odesa, 2012);
- International conference for young scientists “Actual problems of microbiology and biotechnology” (2015)
- Seminar "Project JSO-ERA – tasks, methods and expected results" (2010)
- Seminar "Potential of British scientific sector in a field of biomaterials" РП7 people: opportunities for Ukrainian researchers in life sciences" (2010)
- Seminar "Bio-Rad Laboratories", USA (2010)
- Seminar "Bio-Rad Laboratories"", USA (2013)
- International seminar on biomedical metabolomic, diagnostics and curing tuberculosis in the project РП7 (2013) according to program finansing Marie Curie «TB prognosis-IRSES; a workshop on biomedical metabolomics, TB diagnostics and treatment»
- The summer school «Molecular biology and biotechnology» is conducted annually since 2006.
Department of Human and Animal Physiology
The main focus of research of the Department of Human and Animal Physiology is the study of mechanisms of interneuron interactions in the cerebral cortex. The cellular mechanisms that underlie the paroxysmal activity of the cortex and other brain structures are actively explored. The mechanisms of neurotransmitter receptor systems of the central nervous system are studying by the scientists of Department. Much attention is paid to the study of new physiologically active substances, including those with neurotropic properties and their impact on the various systems of the body in conditions of experimental pathological condition.
The department's studies in recent years are related to the topic "Studying the state of physiological and biochemical systems of the body under the influence of harmful and extreme factors" (head is professor L. M. Karpov).
It is proved that activation not only inhibitory, but and excitatory systems can control the ability of cortical neurons to generate a seizure discharges. It can be assumed that in the conditions of a particular morphological and functional structural organization of the hippocampus and cortex, interactions between hippocampus and cortex, regular interictal spike activity of the ventral hippocampus is capable to controlling of the level of neuronal excitability in the cortical focus even in the absence of GABA-mediated inhibition. It is established (in experiments on rats), that for controlling seizures is inadvisable use of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, but GABA-ergic drugs - derivatives of GABA with pantothenic, homopantothenic and nicotinic acids are capable for effective suppressing the seizure activity in some epileptic models. It has been shown that the addition of natural antioxidants to the rats diet provide protection against the negative effects of radiation (lipid peroxidation, behavioral responses, etc).
In recent years by the Department of Human and Animal Physiology were organized the following scientific events:
- The congresses of scientific societies:
- XVIII Congress of the Ukrainian Physiological Society (2010)
The scientific conferences:
- Odessa regional conferences on the morphology, physiology, pathology and clinical digestive (1993, 1997)
- International Conference on the problems with digestion and absorption on the 100th anniversary of academician RO Faytelberha (2003)
- International conference "Recent advances in zoological sciences (dedicated to the 120 anniversary of I. Puzanov and the 140th anniversary of Odessa National University Zoology Department)" (2005).