MICROBIOLOGY AT ODESSA NATIONAL MECHNYKOV UNIVERSITY
The development of microbiology in Odessa (Novorossiysk) university and the first years in the field of bacteriology associated with the names of prominent scientists and naturalists of the late XIX - early XX century.
Lev Semenovich Tsenkovsky (1822-1887) – an ordinary professor, botanist, protystologist and bacteriologist, Petersburg Academy of Sciences corresponding member. He was the first head of the botany department at Odessa University and the first resident of Novorossiysk Naturalists Society. He created the botany and bacteriology scientific schools developed a framework of microorganisms morphology, a method of vaccination against anthrax, studied vaccines saving processes, characteristics of fermenting bacteria and those that cause the glow of sea water.
Further development of microbiology at the university associated with the name of the outstanding scientist biologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnykov, whose name is from 1945, to mark the 80th anniversary, was awarded the Odessa University.
I.I. Mechnykov (1845-1916) – one of the founders of evolutionary embryology, comparative pathology, microbiology and immunology, awarded by Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine, Honorary Member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. He worked in Odessa University as ordinary professor, headed the cabinet of zoology, comparative anatomy and physiology, he was the president of the Novorossiysk Naturalist Society. Mechnykov studied insect fungal and bacterial diseases, he not only explained the possibility of biological methods of struggle against insects, but also tried to implement them on practice. He was one of the first who drew attention to the intestinal microbiota and its impact on human health, concluded the use of lactobacilli for controlling harmful intestinal residents, he investigated the mechanisms of aging.
In 1886 M.F. Gamaliya went to Paris to Louis Pasteur asking him for help to create a biological station in Odessa. Pasteur delivered to Odessa material for vaccination against rabies in cattle. In 1886 in Odessa the first in Russia and second in the world after Paris, bacteriological station was established. Mechnykov was invited to head it. Gamaliya and Bardakh worked there to. Microbiologist and immunologist A. Bezredka (1870-1940) worked in the Mechnykov laboratory since 1897. He graduated from Odessa University and Medical College in Paris. Since 1916 he was deputy director of the Pasteur Institute. M.F. Gamaliya (1859-1949) – an outstanding scientist, microbiologist and epidemiologist, honorary academician of the USSR (1940), academician of the USSR (1945), winner of the State Prize of the USSR in 1880 graduated from the Novorossiysk University. Gamaliya is an author of several books in medical microbiology. He held a number of original research on critical issues of theory and practice of microbiology, virology, general pathology, immunology, rebuked thee suggested the existence of hidden forms of Infectious Diseases, opened bacteriolyzins and the phenomenon of bacterial lysis, he proved that typhus transmitted by lice, first discovered the role of ship rats in spreading plague and created anti-choleraic anti-smallpox vaccines and developed a number of sanitation in Odessa fighting the plague, cholera, typhus and turning typhuses, influenza and others. In 1899-1908 he was the director of the Bacteriological Institute in Odessa.
Bardakh Y. (1857-1929) continued his medical work in Novorossiysk University for 34 years. In 1922 in the Odessa University Microbiology sector was established. It was headed by Bardakh, specialist in salted-green microbiology and medical bacteriology.
The eminent microbiologist and epidemiologist, academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences, academician of the USSR, the president of the Ukrainian SSR D. K. Zabolotny (1866-1922) studied in Odesa university student from 1887 to 1890. He studied the phosphorescence of Odessa estuaries, snow and microbiology of hydrogen sulfide bacteria. His works are devoted to the study of infectious diseases (plague, cholera, syphilis). In 1928 - 1929 years he was the director of the Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology USSR Academy of Sciences in Kiev.
Scientific activity of microbiologist, immunologist and pathologist, academician of the USSR L.O. Tarasevich (1868-1927) who worked in Paris, is related with Mechnykov. In 1912 Tarasevich published his 3-volume textbook "Medical Microbiology". He was the one of the organizers of the first domestic plant to control bacterial preparations, founded and headed the National Institute of Health named Louis Pasteur.
In 1891 evolutionary biologist, Professor A.A. Kovalevsky suggested Zelinsky M.D. to take part in the expedition to the Black Sea to identify sources of hydrogen sulfide occurrence in the sea. As a result of studies Zelinsky found out that the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the depths of the Black Sea is the result of bacterial activity. I.L. Serbinov (1872-1925), who served as director of the Botanical Garden of the University of Novorossiysk, mean as the founder of the study of plants bacterial diseases. He developed a method of studying of bacteriosis plants, described bacteriosis potatoes and beets and cancer necrosis of fruit trees, humoz sorghum, discovered new types of bacteria that cause diseases of plants and bees. He was the author of the books "General Microbiology" and "Agricultural Microbiology".
Since the organization and opening in Novorossiysk University Medical Faculty (1900), it opened investigation in medical bacteriology. One of the representatives of this trend was V. Pidvysotsky (1857-1913), pathologist and immunologist, and the first dean of the medical faculty, ordinary professor who studied the role of bacteria in the development of tumors. He participated in organizing the struggle against epidemics of cholera and plague in Kiev and Odesa, he studied leprosy in the expedition to the Caucasus, trained at the Pasteur Institute in Paris and other scientific laboratories in Western Europe. World famous V.A. Khavkin (1860-1930) Mechnykov student, in 1884 graduated from the course of Physics and Mathematics Science of the University, then he worked at the Odesa University Zoological Museum, then at the Geneva University and the Pasteur Institute in Paris. In 1893 he leaves for India in the direction of the British government to eliminate cholera epidemic. In Bombay he organized anti-plague laboratory, which creates the most effective anti-plague vaccine. In honor of Dr. Khavkin achievements in the fight against the plague, in 1925 the Indian government reorganized the anti-plague laboratory at the Institute after Khavkin name.
In 1933 at the Faculty of Biology was created Department of Microbiology. Its first head was Professor Leo I. Rubenchyk (1896-1988), who in 1939 became a member of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Under his leadership, the staff conducted investigation of the peloid microbiota and processes peloid formation in the Black Sea estuaries, soil microbiota of irrigation fields, conducted research in biodeterioration - marine biological corrosion of concrete hydraulic structures. His research interests bent to the geochemical activity of sulfur cycle bacteria, including sulfate-reducing bacteria - the main agents of biogenic hydrogen sulfide formation in the seas and soils. One of this group of bacteria was named Vibrio rubentshikii.
During the Worl War II Department of Microbiology headed by Professor David Lazarevic Shamis, who later became a member of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan. In the war years in the department developed problems of technical and general microbiology. In the first postwar decade was head of microbiology in 1944 - 1945 yy. s.d., professor Y.K. Medvedev in 1945 - 1946 yy. M.D. Suknyev Vladimir V. and in 1947 - 1952 yy. M.D. Sergey Minervin . More than thirty years - from 1952 to 1983 - led the department Corr. Ukraine Academy of Sciences (1947) Professor Vera Petrovna Tulchynskaya (1906-1994). Thanks to her efforts, in 1963 the Department of Microbiology was renamed the Department of Microbiology and Virology. Her research interests include medical, water, general microbiology, virology, immunology, ecology. Were conducted basic and applied research on volatiles, microbial damage, using the living part of the Black Sea - aquatic organisms as producers physiologically active substances including - antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, was studied the microbial population of the north-western Black Sea and Danube delta, and White Azov seas. Since 1975 started research on biotechnology of wastewater treatment. The main purpose was to seek active bacteria-destructors bioresistant organic compounds from different ecological niches, including seawater, sludge treatment facilities, sewage treatment enterprises laid the scientific foundations using immobilized bacteria-destructors in biotechnology. These developments demonstrated at VDNKh USSR and VDNKh USSR and were awarded bronze and silver medals. In 1960 for the first time and received subcultured primary culture trypsynised Black bull gonads logs. We studied the morphological features of cell culture and their use for the evaluation of toxic pollutants and genetic action; pathogenic properties of microorganisms removed from the marine environment. In 1978-1983 yy. were worked out classical microbiological tests for genotoxicity and mutagenicity. For the bioassay used cell culture model of human, mammals and aquatic organisms, bacterial (Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, Salmonella typhimurium TA 100) and algae (Chlorella vulgaris A) test systems. In 1978-1990 yy. conducted research on marine microbiology, microbial population studied Baltic, Bering and Chukchi seas and coastal waters of the Black Sea. In the field of soil microbiology was conducted researches of changes microbial communities of irrigated and dryland soils.
Since 1983 Head of the Department of Microbiology and Virology became Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of Ukraine Vladimir Ivannitsya. Since 1990 he is vice president of the Society of Microbiologists of Ukraine and head of its regional offices. Scientific interests of the department expands. Was proposed concept of variability of microorganisms in the direction of their aggressive growth properties in terms of environmental pollution, started work on taxonomy and ecology of marine bacteria, in particular sliding bacteria anammox bacteria and bacteria of the genus Bacillus. A collection of marine plants and useful microorganisms, which became a branch of the National Culture Collection of Microorganisms and in 2004 received the status of national estate. In 1996 the department began to study the lactic acid bacteria extracted from marine and aquatic fermented products, was developed the technology of leavens. Investigated the nature of microbiological corrosion of pipelines Odessa heating systems, made the selection of strains for inoculation of seeds of plants to stimulate the growth activity. Since 2000 conducted a study on viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens grapes. Developed molecular methods for diagnosis of these diseases and the measures to combat them. Since 2002 study of fungi of medical importance, developed technology of their cultivation, methods of study and regulation of pest using bacteria of the genus Bacillus. In 2003 he started research on the research station "Snake Island" Odessa National University of observation of microorganisms and viruses carried by birds in Ukraine and Europe. Since 2005, studies prokaryotic viruses, including bacteriophages of Erwinia and bacteriocins and develop their use for plant protection from pathogenic bacteria.
Since 2016 Head of the Department of Microbiology, Virology and Biotechnology d.b.s. became professor Tatyana Filippova O. Under her leadership, and Professor B.N. Galkin study conducted susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics, interferon and Amiksyn, state of the phagocytic system of mice under conditions of long-term persistence of Salmonella in the body, the dynamics of accumulation of 3 H-Amiksyn in immune organs and cells of mice. Investigated anti-inflammatory effect of plant melanin and its effect on the growth of lactobacilli. Started research on biofilm formation and its mechanisms.
In 2012 opened training in the specialty "Biotechnology" and the department as a base, renamed the Department "Microbiology, Virology and Biotechnology". For 80 years the department has trained more than 2500 specialists microbiologists and virologists.