Institute of Combustion and Unconventional Technologies
Institute of combustion and unconventional technologies (ICUT) of Odessa national university was established in 1994 according to a mutual decision of the ministry of machine industry, the military industrial establishment and the convention of Ukraine. It was grounded on the basis of several laboratories of the scientific department and the chair of general and chemical physics of ONU.
4 professors, doctors of science, 11 associate professors and candidates of science work in ICUT.
Distinguished members of ICUT
- Zolotko Andriy Nikonovich – director, doctor of physic-mathematical science, professor.
- Vovchul Yakiv Illich – assistant director, candidate of physic-mathematical science, senior researcher.
- Shevchuk Volodymyr Gavrilovych – head of the department, doctor of physic-mathematical science, professor.
- Poletaev Mykola Ivanovych – head of the department, candidate of physic-mathematical science.
- Pysarskiy Vitaliy Pavlovych – head of the laboratory, candidate of physic-mathematical science.
- Florko Oleksandr Volodymyrovych – doctor of physic-mathematical science, associate professor.
- Kondratiev Evgeniy Mykolayovych – candidate of physic-mathematical science, associate professor.
- Golovko Volodymyr Vasyliovych – candidate of physic-mathematical science, associate professor.
- Shoshin Yuriy Leonidovych – candidate of physic-mathematical science, senior researcher.
- Polishchuk Dmytro Dmytrovych – candidate of physic-mathematical science, associate professor.
- Yakovleva Tetyana Oleksiivna – candidate of physic-mathematical science, senior researcher.
- Diachenko Oleksandr Mytrofanovych – doctor of physic-mathematical science, professor.
- Kopiyka Kuzma Myhailovych – candidate of physic-mathematical science, associate professor.
- Sydorov Volodymyr Ivanovych – candidate of physic-mathematical science, associate professor.
- Boichuk Lyudmila Valentynivna – candidate of physic-mathematical science, senior researcher.
The institute solves fundamental and applied problems connected with combustion operations in disperse systems of liquid and solid fuel.
The institute includes 4 departments and 1 laboratory:
- Department of general theoretical macrokinetics (head of the department – doctor of physic-mathematical science, professor V.G.Shevchuk);
- Department of energetical combustion (head of the department – candidate of physic-mathematical science Y.I.Vovchuk);
- Department of technological combustion (head of the department – candidate of physic-mathematical science N.I.Poletaev);
- Department of structural macrokinetics.
Laboratory of high-temperature synthesis (head of the laboratory – candidate of physico-mathematical science V.P.Pysarskiy).
Advanced developments of ICUT
Metal oxide nanopowder
ICUT puts forward a new method to get metal oxide nanopowder: Аl2PRО3, Zr2, Тi2, Zn, Fe2PRО3, Mg (an average size of particles is 20-100 nm), it possesses outstanding characteristics – chemically pure (>99,7%), granulametrically narrow, spherical, well disaggregated. This method is patented as the method of gas-dispersion synthesis (GDS) and consists in combustion of suspension metal particles in gas in specially organized two-phase stove (pure metal, metallic alloy). The target product originates due to condensation of gas-phase products of metals combustion in the acid environment.
The topicality of effective methods of metal oxide nanopowder production on a commercial scale is motivated by the fact that such modern technologies (nanotechnologies) as manufacturing of constructive and functional ceramics have become a widespread sphere of its employment nowadays. Possible consumers: industrial organizations that produce and use ceramic and composite materials, catalyzators, absorbents, pigments; cosmetic industries make good use of metal oxide nanopowder due to it’s high ultraviolet light resistance
Competitive products and technologies
- Physical Vapor Synthesis - PVP, which consists in evaporation of metal in the open environment, and the interaction of metallic fumes with oxidant atoms. As a result nanocrystalline metal oxides are produced. They are used for powder production on a commercial scale. This powder is called NanoTec and is produced by NanophaseTechnologies Corporation. The production requires a high energy expenditure on account of the refractoriness of many metals.
- Gas Phase Condensation - GFC, when the synthesis of metal oxides is conducted in a deep vacuum by means of the evaporation of an appropriate metal oxide followed by condensation on a surface, refrigerated with liquid nitrogen. A low productivity, a very big value and a small adaptability to manufacture make the scientists use it only for research purposes.
- Methods, based on combustion of metal-organic and non-organic matters, which leads to contaminating of particles with sulphides and chlorides.
Advantages of the suggested method:
This method is very economical from the viewpoint of energy expenditure, highly productive (the laboratory facility allows to product 1 kl. of oxide powder per hour, while GFC method – several dozens gr. per day), consists of one stage, uninterrupted, ecologically clean, the quality of the product is better than the quality of powders that are produced in the USA, Russia, Japan. Thus this method is of great interest for export.
Motor oil additives
Antiwear motor oil additives ("MOLYCAR" brand) are based on artificial molybdenum disulfide, which possess a very low friction coefficient. It provides a high quality of additives. The production of solid lubrication on the basis of artificial molybdenum disulfide is patented in Ukraine as M 94052569 from 29.10.96.
The company “NAMi” makes antiwear products for different purposes:
- 'MOLYCAR'-D – an antiwear motor oil additive for gasoline and diesel engines. It is a suspension with solid particles not bigger than 5 mcm., which provides a clear passage through a grease filter.
- 'MOLYCAR'-T – an antiwear transmissible oil additive in a gear box, a rear axle. The size of particles in the additive is not bigger than 10 mcm., which provides an optimal lubricant of mechanisms.
- 'MOLYCAR'-P – powder for first-operation work of a crankshaft pin, rams, bushes, collars etc. before the assembly of friction units in order to decrease the breaking-in time of details and the running-in wear the engine
- 'MOLYCAR'-C – for high-rate details (non-fluid oil).
A constant use of 'Molycar'-D and 'Molycar'-T additives allows:
- To increase the usable time of the engine before the major repair more than three-fold;
- To make the frictional force 3-7 times less depending on the capacity;
- To decrease the losses of power;
- To simplify the cold engine ignition; to decrease the frequency of valves adjustment;
- To cure microflaws in the engine;
- To save fuel and oil (8-10%);
- To decrease exhaust toxicity considerably;
- To increase the usable time of a gear box and a rear axle in 3 times;
- To decrease the mechanism wear-out in 50 times;
- To prevent the wedging of mechanisms in case of oil outflow;
Waste reclamation. Alternative fuel
We suggest a method and a model set for reclamation of waste oils – oil combustion in the form of water-fuel emulsion (WFE), which is produced just before the fuel ignition (no saving problems). The usage of WFE solves not only the problem of reclamation but also the problem of development of highly economical, effective and ecologically clear fuel. The optimized formula of the emulsion provides a full oil combustion and the fuel energy value that is close to mazout.
The topicality of this method consists in the fact that traditional utilization approaches (repeated regeneration, storage, burial) are not economic and provoke serious ecological problems.
Possible consumers: ports, railway stations, transport bases, factories, agricultural enterprises. The problem of collection and transportation of waste oils doesn’t exist for such customers, because the raw materials supplier and the customer is one person in this case.
Elaboration status. There was created an experimental installation, which can serve as a prototype of a future industrial model. Characteristics of the installation: 1500 х 750 х 750 mm. The installation assembly is designed either for its disposition in one frame, or it can be installed with separate assembly units that are connected with pipelines and electrotechnical equipment. Its productivity: 50-100 l. per hour (200-400 tonne annually).
Evaluation of the economic impact is made on the basis of a medium-powered device that consumes 5000 t. of fuel annually. The use of WFE created on the basis of oil, which is susceptible to regeneration, can economize 2.000.000-3.000.000 grivnas every year.
According to our information there are no similar installations abroad. But as an example we can mention an installation for combustion of crude petroleum designed in Germany by the company Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanhalt für Luft- und Raumfahrtwith a capacity of 35 kw., productivity – 5-10 l. per hour, size - 1500 х 750 х 750 mm., and the price - $10.000.
Institute has developed international links with scientists from different countries. Scientists of ICUT work at common projects with the scientists from Russia, Norway, Israel, Germany, France, Holland, the USA, Canada, Poland, the south Korea. The goup of researches consisting of A.N. Zolotko, Y.I. Vovchuk, A.V. Florko, N.I. Poletaev represent Odessa national university in the European nanomaterials consortium.
In 1998 the scientists of ICUT succeeded in establishing Ukrainian department of the American institute of combustion, which includes departments of more than 30 countries. The department consists not only of the ONU scientists but of specialists from Kiev, Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk and other cities of Ukraine. The head of the department is ICUT director, head of the chair of general and chemical physics, professor A.N.Zolotko.