The history of the Chair of Economical Theory and the History of Economical Thought
Since the time of the foundation of the Novorossiyk University there has been a Chair of Political Economy and Statistics at the Law Faculty. The scientific work of the Chair’s professors was closely connected to the problems which arose in the economy of the South of Ukraine and Odessa. Talented economists were particularly interested in the fate of the peasants after the Reform of the year 1861, perspectives of the entry of Ukraine into the European market through the Black Sea ports, competition in the production of grain and other agricultural crops.
The first Head of the Chair was an alumnus of the Richelieu Lyceum M. M. Volsky, who had gained higher education at Moscow University. His Master’s thesis «The tillage by peasants-proprietors» and his Doctoral thesis «The tillage by slaves» were highlighting the progressiveness of the capitalist agrarian relations. M. M. Volsky’s treatise «The outline of bread trade history of the Novorossiysk region since ancient times till the year 1852» has great scientific value even now.
In his treatise «Purposes of Political Economy and its relation to other studies» (1872) M. M. Volsky spoke as an ardent advocate of the knowledge of Political Economy, fairly believing that «… the knowledge of science contributes into softening rough egoism, renewing of politics in social and international relations, eliminating thousands of reasons that lead to conflicts, overturns and revolutions». He was one of a few people, who considered Political Economy inseparable from morality and law.
Since 1876 the Head of the Chair had been professor A. S. Posnikov. His main treatises were dedicated to the problems of the communal farming. According to his point of view, the core of the post-reformist agrarian changes had to be in taking care of increasing the land ownership of the state while saving the communal land tenure. Like this, the State would buy land from the nobles and give it to rural communes to increase peasant land tenure. A. C. Posnikov had such lecturer skills that students from other Faculties were coming to the lectures he was giving. Not infrequently the scientists, especially I. I. Mechnikov, were attending his auditoriums.
L. V. Fedorovitch became the Head of the Chair after A. S. Posnikov. The circle of his scientific interests was incredibly wide - from the problems of value to credit circulation. According to L. V. Fedorovitch, the direct source of the formation and increase of capital is thrift, saving of values for investing in production and profit is a consequence of abstaining the momentary consumption of values for better, though moderate, satisfaction of the needs in the future. In 1882 he published a fundamental treatise «The History of Political Economy of Ancient Times». Besides, he was the author of such treatises as «Political Economy», «The Theory of Political Economy» in 2 parts (1901), «The Course of Political Economy» (1905).
Among the practicing economists, who have worked at the Novorossiysk University, there was an outstanding agronomist I. V. Palimpsestov. In due time he had been teaching at the Richelieu Lyceum, subsequently he became the University’s professor. For many years he was officiating the secretary of the Agricultural Society of the Southern Russia and editing «The Notes of the Society». I. V. Palimpsestov had a strong belief that our region was able to be a granary of Western European countries but for this method of the economic management should have been changed fundamentally. The connection to science, rationalisation and intensification should have been put into its core. And the repartition of the land and its transition into the hands of peasants should have been the center of economy’s reorganisation. The words of the scientist «If our peasants only use the land it won’t improve their mode of life, and an eternal land ownership with all the property rights may lead the agriculture to the prosperous state, the undeniable proof of this is almost all the West of Europe» were a clear warning.
Professor V. O. Kosinsky, who was heading the Chair of Political Economy during the years 1905-1909, was an expert in agrarian relations. He was a proponent of further capitalist development of the country, fast liquidation of serfdom leftovers, redistribution of the lands of lords. His treatises «Peasant and Landlord Farming» (1906), «To the Issue of the Modern Agrarian Crisis» (1906), «To the Agrarian Issue» (1906), «Is the Agrarian Reform in Russia Possible without the Partial Expropriation?» (1909) and other treatises on the same topics evoked strong discussions. V. O. Kosinsky was also developing the statistics theory, as indicated in such his treatises as «About the Methods of the Scientific Development of Statistical Data» (1890), «To the Issue of Steps and Development of Productive Forces in Russia. Statistics and Economical Sketch» (1904).
While working later in Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, V. O. Kosinsky became one of the 12 first members of the Ukrainian Science Academy, created in 1918. He was also engaged in political activity, he was a member of the Central Council, the minister of labour in times of the Hetmanate.
Since 1909 docent V. D. Katkov had been the Head of the Chair. During the same period S. I. Solntsev, who consequently became an academician of the Ukrainian Science Academy and in 1929 became the member of the USSR Science Academy, had been working at the Chair. Among his treatises were: «The Movement of Population Caused by the Forms of Land Ownership» (1903), «Working Budget in Association With the Impoverishment Theory» (1907), «Social Classes» (1919). The researcher paid particular attention to the issues of distribution of national income in the capitalist conditions, believing that the decrease of the part of the working class in national product is a reason of antagonism between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. These ideas were put into the base of his famous treatise «The Salary as a Problem of Distribution» (1925). S. I. Solntsev paid a lot of attention to the teaching of Political Economy. He was publishing textbooks, among them «The Introduction to Political Economy. Subject and Object» (1922) and others.
In 1933, when the work of the University was recommenced, M.S. Vainshtein, who paid particular attention to the research of the ideas of classical Political Economy in the sphere of agrarian relations and the specialities of their application in socialistic agriculture, was the Head of the Chair. His treatise «The Problem of Rent in the theories of Ricardo, Marx and in soviet economy» (1927) was dedicated to this. This proves that the Chair’s professors were working on important theoretical and practical issues of economic development.
Subsequently, the Chair was headed by docent M. A. Adler (in the years of the World War II he died under Sevastopol). His scientific interests were concentrated around philosophic problems of Political Economy, primarily the doctrine of Marx. His most famous treatises: «Marxism as the Proletarian Ideology» (1923), «Marx as Thinker» (1924), «Engels as Thinker» (1924), «Marx’s communism» (1925).
During the first years after the War professor G. I. Tiktin was heading the Chair. He had been researching finance and currency since pre-Revolutionary times. Since 1946 till 1958 the Head of the Chair had been docent N. A. Moiseev. His scientific interests were concentrated around the problems of unemployment in capitalist conditions. The most famous treatises of N. A. Moiseev are «Accumulation of Capital and Impoverishment of Proletariat» (1957) and «The Development of Governmental and Monopolist Capitalism» (1969).
Since 1958 till 1989 the Head of the Chair was Doctor of Economics, professor A. G. Lobunets, who was researching the problems of planned character and proportionality of economic development. During that period the Chair was actively doing economically contractual topics, developing long term plans of social economic development of enterprises of Odessa and Odessa region. This direction of work was led by professor A. G. Lobunets and L. I. Zhebrak. The teachers of the Chair (docent Dragomaretsky D. A., docent Levchenko L. A.) were heading the work of the Faculty of Advancing the Qualification of Secondary Special Educational Institutions’ Teachers, where the teachers from Ukraine, Russia and Bulgaria were undergoing the training. Docents of the Chair Dolenko L. K., Marinitch D. M., Ploskonos G. A. were successfully working abroad (Algeria, Guinea-Bissau, Mali). Scientific interests of the Chair’s teachers were connected to the live issues of development of the USSR economy. The research of microeconomic and macroeconomic problems was held there. Professor A. G. Lobunets was leading a special scientific council, that was working at the Chair. During the work of the council more than 50 people from different cities of the USSR defended their dissertations there. There was formed a creative atmosphere for scientific research at the Chair. The teachers of the Chair were actively advocating economic knowledge among the population, holding lectures at schools of economic science at enterprises of Odessa on a regular basis.
Despite the absence of Economic Faculty, the Chair of Political Economy was playing a leading role at the University. The teachers of the Chair were taking part in scientific conferences, publishing the results of their research in scientific magazines, publishing methodological textbooks, preparing specialists of high qualification, taking part at scientific debates, that were taking place on pages of scientific magazines and at conferences.
The newest history of the Chair began in 1992, when the teachers of the Chair began the preparation of students in two fields - «Economical Theory» and «International Economic Relations». During the period since 1989 till 1996 Doctor of Economics, Professor N. A. Pilguy was heading the Chair. Her circle of scientific interests was concerning problems of the history of Economic Thought. The most famous treatises of N. A. Pilgui were «The Critisism of Macroeconomic Models of Regulation» (1977), «The Humanisation of Socialistic Economics» (1987) and «The History of Economic Ideas» (1992).
Taking into consideration the fact that the future economists needed modern knowledge in the field of finance, trade, marketing, international business, as well as conjuncture, strategy and tactics of entrepreneurship, the staff of the Chair of Theoretical Economics (this was the name of the Chair of Political Economics starting from the year 1996) began the development of fundamentally new courses and specialised courses. Since 1996 docent L. K. Dolenko was heading the Chair, and its work was intensified in the field of organizing and widening international connections with the Universities of Germany, USA, France, Italy, Portugal, Netherlands and other countries. There were invited professors from the USA for teaching micro- and macroeconomics and also marketing courses. A significant amount of teachers were interns at Western European Universities in the framework of the programme Tempus - Tacis. The students of new specialities were undergoing training at the Universities of Regensburg (Germany) and Nice (France) during a few years. The circle of scientific interests of teachers of the Chair was incredibly wide. The Head of the Chair, Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, docent Dolenko L. K. was working on the issues of the theory of enterprise’s strategy and the theory of sectoral markets. In 1988 the monograph of docent Dolenko L. K. «The Theory of the Enterprise’s Strategy» was published, it became the first treatise in Ukraine, which was dedicated to this issue of enterprises’ development in the conditions of market economy.
In 2000 there was opened a Masters programme in the field of study «Economical Theory». The Chair was also preparing specialists in two fields of study «Economical Theory» and «International Economic Relations». The scientific and research work was being held at the Chair. The result of it was the publication of a significant amount of monographs, textbooks with a seal of the Ministry and the preparation of Doctors of Economics and Doctors of Philosophy of Economics.
In 2007 the Chair of Theoretical Economics was renamed into the Chair of Economical Theory and International Economic Relations.
In 2008 the Chair split in two different Chairs: the Chair of Economical Theory and the History of Economical Thought (the Head - Doctor of Economics, professor Horniak O. V.) and The Chair of World Economy and International Economic Relations (the Head - Doctor of Economics, professor Yakubovskiy S. A.) in accordance with the graduate fields.
The Chair’s professors do the research on the theory of the firm (professor Horniak O. V.), the theory of sectoral markets (docent Dolenko L. H.), institutional Economics (professor Horniak O.V., docent Skorokhod I. P., docent Pichugina U.V.), the theory of industrial Economics (docent Dolenko L. H., docent Makeeva O. A., docent Sidletska O. S.) and the theory of Finance (docent Lomachynska I. A., senior lecturer Kopylova O. V., docent Kriutchkova N. M., senior lecturer Bychkova N. V.). Starting from 2004, the Chair regularly organises international scientific and practical conferences, does two governmental research topics, fruitfully works with students and postgraduates on a regular basis.
The Chair’s professors prepare international students from PRC, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vietnam.
During the last 5 years there have been published 9 monographs, 6 textbooks, 7 educational and methodical course-development books, about 130 scientific articles in professional magazines.
Moreover, there were defended 2 Doctoral dissertations (2004, Horniak O. V., Yakuboskiy S. A.), 10 PhD dissertations (Skorokhod I. P. (2004), Kopilova O. V. (2010), Oborina A. V. (2010), Zinchenko A. I. (2009), Pichiugina U. V. (2009), Lomachynska I. A. (2009), Kriutchkova N. M. (2009), Bychkova N. V. (2012), Du Chunbu (2012), Butenko V. V. (2013)).
Scientific interests of the Chair’s teachers indicate that the Chair works in line with the latest trends of development of Economical Theory. The results of the research of the Chair’s teachers are being published in scientific magazines of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Poland, France etc. Starting from 2006 the Chair has been organising the edition of the scientific magazine «Odessa National University’s messenger. Economics», that regularly publishes articles of Ukrainian and Russian economists (scientific editor - professor Horniak O. V., technical editor - docent Lomachynska I. A.). Professor Horniak O. V., docents Lomachynska I. A. and Kriutchkova N. M. are regularly being invited to review PhD and Doctoral dissertations in different Ukrainian cities as opponents. Professor Horniak O. V. is a member of two specialised scientific councils for the PhD and Doctoral dissertation defense. At the Chair there is a successfully working graduate school. Despite the absence of a specialised scientific council, graduate students successfully defend their dissertations.
The Chair’s staff organises student work. Scientific student conferences are held annually, students take part in Ukrainian olympiads and contests. Starting from the third year of study, students publish their works in co-authorship with the scientific directors of their thesis.
The Chair also organises the work with applicants, holds open days, it has organised the School for Young Economists, holds the II round of the contest of research works in Economics in the framework of the Small Science Academy (the «Economics» section has been headed for more than ten years by Professor Horniak O. V.) for Odessa and Odessa region high school students, holds Ukrainian Economical Olympiad for school students (docent Lomachynska I. A., senior lecturer Bychkova N. V., lecturer Babanska O. V.).
In 2013-2014 academic year the scientific and pedagogical staff consists of the following members: the Head of the Chair, Doctor of Economics, Professor Horniak Olha Vasylivna; Doctor of Economics, Professor Yakuboskiy Serhiy Aleksiyovitch; Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, docent Lomachynska Iryna Anatoliivna; Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, docent Kriutchkova Nataliya Mykhailivna; Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, docent Dolenko Leonid Kharlampiyovitch; Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, docent Makeeva Olena Anatoliivna; Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, docent Sidletska Oksana Stanislavivna; Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, docent Skorokhod Iryna Petrivna; Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, docent Pichiugina Uliya Valeriivna; Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, senior lecturer Kopylova Olha Vladymyrivna; Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, senior lecturer Bychkova Nataliya Volodymyrivna; Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, lecturer Butenko Victoriya Vasylivna; senior lecturer Kryzhanovskiy Serhiy Vasyliovych; senior lecturer Dobriy Diana Oleksandrivna; senior lecturer Filippovytch Vira Volodymyrivna; senior lecturer Mumladze Anzor Oleksandrovytch; lecturer Babanska Olha Vasylivna; lecturer Puhatcheva Nataliya Mykolaiivna.
In 2004 Odessa National University achieved a license of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine to provide educational services for Bachelors, Specialists and Masters in the field 7. 05030101; 8.05030101 - Economical Theory. The graduate field of the Chair of Economical Theory and the History of Economical Thought is Economical Theory.