The department of human physiology and animals Novorossiysk University was established with the participation of Sechenov in 1872. Working in Odessa, less than 6 years, Sechenov had to fulfill a number of important studies. So, here it is set the value of hemoglobin and the liquid portion of blood for the binding and transport of carbon dioxide. Studying the function of the nervous system, Sechenov found the disappear excitation after the frequent stimulation of the nerve. On this basis, he concluded that not only in the central nervous system, but also in the peripheral nerves the processes of excitation replaced by inhibition processes. The joint work of Sechenov and Mechnikov about the nature of the effects of the vagus nerve on the heart was great interest to the physiology. They found that the periodicity of vagus inhibitory effect on the turtle heart activity occurs after its prolonged stimulation: heart activity increases, then inhibited.
Spiro PA and latter Verigo BF – the disciples of Sechenov – led the Department of Physiology after leaving Sechenov from Odessa in 1876. They provided Sechenov's direction in physiological studies. Under the direction of Sechenov Spiro studied the innervation of the airways, and proved the existence in the medulla oblongata and pons nerve centers involved in the regulation of breathing. Spiro discovered the phenomenon of reciprocal innervation. Spiro also described a phenomenon which has been called "reflex traces". Spiro also found the phenomenon of summation of stimuli in the nerve centers. After a number of works about the phenomenon of hypnosis, he strongly rejected the view that hypnosis is a mysterious phenomenon, inaccessible to study. Some works Spiro focused on the physiology of digestion.
After the death of Spiro PA (1893) Physiology Laboratory headed by Verigo BF in 1894. He researched the physiology of the nervous system and proved that specific relationships between the process of excitation and conduction of excitation in nerve were present. He interpreted the excitation propagation as a jump process. Verigo investigated the mechanism cathodic depression and found that during the excitation along the nerve passes redistribution of ions. He conducted extensive immunobiology studies.
After the transition Verigo BF to the physiology department of the Medicine Faculty organized in 1901, Vladimir Zavyalov was elected head of the Physiology Laboratory of the Physics and Mathematics Faculty. He worked mainly as a teacher. When the disciples of Vvedenskiy - Beritov JS (Beritashvili) and Vorontsov DS – comes to Physiology Laboratory in 1915 -1916 years, science lab work activated. Beritov established the law coupled irradiation of excitation in the central nervous system after four years of work in Odessa. He also explored the reciprocal innervation of skeletal muscle. Vorontsov studied electrocardiograms of frog heart. Several of his works were devoted to the nerve physiology; they studied the conduction of excitation along the nerves.
The Department of Animal Physiology was organized after the Great October Revolution, in the early 20s, at base of the Physiology Laboratory of the Zoology Department. First, this department was headed by a disciple of Pavlov Babkin BP, who also headed the Department of Physiology at the Medical Institute. In 1922 Babkin left Odessa, and in the same year Sinelnikov EI – Pavlov collaborator - led the Department of Physiology. His scientific investigations provided in various chapters of physiology: physiology of the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system, thermoregulation, physiology of the digestion and lymph formations. Sinelnikov has developed a special method of warming and cooling blood flowing to the brain and, together with his collaborators, proved that the changing of blood temperature activated thermoregulatory centers. Formation of conception of conditioned reflex regulation of body temperature is a merit of the Department scientists, which was confirmed by many physiologists and clinicians. A number of works Sinelnikov and his colleagues focused on the conditioned reflex activity. It has been found (KM Leutskim), that the frogs, who are deprived of the cerebral hemispheres, can develop conditioned reflexes to light and at the time, but the inhibition to the differential stimulus develops hard and not only operated, but also in normal frogs. Los MV Elk and Chevaliov VE found that conditioned reflexes break at brain anemization cats but rapidly restored after normalization of blood circulation in the central nervous system. Faytelberg RA found that conditional reflex activity in pigeons is disturbed during vitamin deficiency, developed inhibition process on the avitaminosis food, resulting in the bird becoming indifferent to food. Studying reflex relationship between the internal organs, Sinelnikov and others have found that between the organs of the abdominal and pelvic cavities exist vistsero-visceral reflexes, which reserved after the destruction of the spinal cord. Problems of physiology of digestion more developed by Sinelnikov and his collaborators (Semenyuk LY, Volya SM, Alekhina GF, Samojlenko IS). It has been shown that the act of chewing influences the activity of digestive glands and the formation of tooth-jaw apparatus. Excluding the masticatory apparatus impair the absorption of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Secretory and motor activity of the intestine of humans and animals more studied. It was proved that the duration of contractions hungry and relative rest depends from the digestive mode prior starvation.
After the death of Sinelnikov EI in 1951 at the head of the department became his disciple Faytelberg RO. Prof. Faytelberg with employees, in 60-70 years, were also carried out studies on absorption regularities of various nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract, not only during normal but also various pathological conditions. At that these laws were examined in terms of the complex relationships between the stomach and the intestine. Considerable attention devoted to the mechanisms of regulation of the processes of absorption, as well as the role of stimuli of different areas of the digestive tract. In the same period, prof. Faytelberg RO and Assoc. Alekseyeva ZI first established the dependence of the absorption of glucose and glycine fron the content of Na ions in their solutions. Then this position has been confirmed in many laboratories around the world. Assistant professor Siomik LI performed the study of absorption of chloride salts of Mn, Zn, Co, Cu in different parts of the intestine. These results formed the basis for her PhD thesis. Later these studies were continued by Senior Researcher Ermakova TL, who studied micronutrient absorption at their introduction together with amino acids and sugars. During these years, work began on the study of mechanisms of the central nervous system influence on the absorption processes. For this microelectrodes stereotactically introduced into different structures and areas of CNS (cortex, subcortical structures, cerebellum, spinal cord). These investigations performed assistants professor Vengrzhanovsky PM, Drachuk LG, PhD Wasilewska VS, Tkachenko GM, Bashev VD, Rahimberdiev AA, senior assistant Malakhovskaya VM. Thus, the effect of a constant electric current of different voltage on different neural structures was investigated and its effect on absorption too. At that different parts and structures of the brain and spinal cord were stimulated. Apart from these methods of stimulation of neural structures by electric current, destructions by electrocoagulation of different areas of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, subcortical structures and transection of the spinal cord at the different levels were conducted. As a result of these numerous years of research it was found the influences the various nerve structures on the absorption activity of the intestine. Has also managed to establish that the effect of the nervous system on of the intestine apparatus implemented with the participation of serotonin that forms in the intestines in the so-called chromaffin cells (prof. Faytelberg RO Balan MM). In cases where the corresponding structure stimulated absorption processes in the intestinal, increased serotonin. Therefore, it was referred to the factors of absorption. For absorption factors were considered and peptides. In the same period, the role of the autonomic nervous system examined in the conduction impulses to the absorptive intestinal apparatus. In recent years working at the Department prof. Faytelberg very interested questions of absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of different medicinal substances. Under his guidance, these studies were initiated in the early 70s and continues to this day. For example, an assistant professor of biochemistry Karpov LM in these years (now - Professor and Head of Department of Human and Animal Physiology) using radioisotope methods carried out series of studies on the absorption of certain vitamins in the small intestine in dogs and rats in conjunction with the staff of the Department of Physiology. Together with the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow) was carried out the study of rectilinear of motion sickness on the absorption process in the gastrointestinal tract. By the way, on this topic in 1981 Gladkiy TV defended her PhD thesis. At the department research work on the effect of different blood substitutes (polyglukin, gemodez et al.) on the animal organism in blood loss was carried out. With fire-Institute (Moscow) the effect of the combustion products of synthetic materials on the organism was studied. The high scientific authority of the department was the reason that it has been entrusted to carry out the two Republican Congresses of Physiologists (1961 and 1977), as well as a number of All-Union Symposium on the physiology and pathology of the digestive system. This intensive scientific work of the department, of course, has been seen by the management and the students of the University. The department has become one of the centers of student research: prof. Faytelberg many years was scientific director of the Student Scientific Society (SSS), and Siomik LI - chairman of SSS University. Under the guidance of prof. Faytelberg 27 candidate and 6 doctoral theses were defended. Even after retirement, he did not interrupt communications with the University and the Department, continuing the consultations and participate in the organization of various congresses and conferences. He died on February 4, 1998 at 96 years of age.
From 1978 to 1999. the Department of Physiology led by Professor VD Taranenko. With its arrival two electrophysiological laboratory and clinic (vivarium) were organized and equipped with modern facilities and, for the first time in Odessa, microelectrode technique neurophysiological studies were introduced. During the 80s and early 90s the main focus of research at the department of human and animal physiology was to study the mechanisms of neurons interaction in the cerebral cortex. Actively were explored the cellular mechanisms underlying paroxysmal activity in the cerebral cortex and other brain structures. Mechanisms of action of convulsants and GABA-ergic nature substances on the processes of post-synaptic inhibition have been established (together with prof. Karpov LM). Actively carry out research neuromorphological cortex after various treatments (with assistants prof. Siomik LI). With Taranenko department became the center of neurophysiology witch known in the country and abroad. The result of years of research was Protection (1986) by Taranenko VD of doctoral thesis on the topic "Functional properties of neurons and organization neurons interaction in cortex of the brain". Under the guidance of prof. VD Taranenko 10 PhD thesis were defended (Timofeev IV, Turkin VV, Kiryazova TH, Lopantsev VE, Topolnik EV, Berete Namori, Sudha, etc.). Students of the department are currently working in well-known universities and clinics in the US, Canada and Germany. From 1987 to the end of 1999, prof. Taranenko VD was dean of the Faculty of Biology.
In 2000, Associate Professor Siomik LI performed the duties of Head of the Department.
Since 2001, the Department was headed by professor LM Karpov, which continues and develops the research areas and the traditions established by their predecessors. At that a lot of attention is given to studying of actions of new physiologically active substances, including neurotropic properties, for example, GABA-containing drugs.
During this period, employees of Department are protected several PhD theses, including:
- Maikova GV. Comparative pharmacological characteristics tsinazepama, gidazepama - prodrugs of 1,4-benzdiazepamovoy structure (scientific director Prof. Zhuk AV).
- Sorokin AV. Nicotinic acid interaction with other vitamins in the implementation of its functions under various conditions of the organism (scientific director Prof. Karpov LM).
- Budniak AK. Violation of metabolism and riboflavin coenzyme functions in animals and possibility of their correction (scientific director. Prof. Karpov LM).
- Anisimov VYu. Energy mechanisms of interaction vitamins "B" as a factor in the implementation of their functions (scientific director Prof. Karpov LM).
In the short time 2-3 dissertations preparing to defend.
Since 1991, with the participation of faculty, staff and students of the department it was made more than 10 scientific topics (cathedral and funded by the Ministry of Education of Ukraine) on the scientific direction of number 15, "Biology, biotechnology, food". Since 2000, they led by prof. Karpov LM. Among them are the following:
- "Implementation Mechanisms vitamins metabolic activity as an integral regulator system", in which there are significant metabolic disorders in animals (white rats) by the action on the body of factors such as hypoxia, radiation, diabetes, etc. (2 thesis PhD protected)
- "The study of the mechanisms of biosynthesis of nicotine-amide co-enzymes in animal cells of different origin and functional state". The dependence of the level of co-enzymes in animal organs with age, action hepatotoxic factors, the efficiency of protein synthesis, and power systems were found. Pretreatment animals vitamin complex, spirulina products significantly protects the body from harmful factors.
- "Investigation of possibilities to improve the stability of the physiological and biochemical systems of the organism to the action of harmful factors and extreme." Results in the form of recommendations delivered to the customer, published 9 articles and 14 theses, 1 PhD thesis defended.
- "The role of different types of neuronal activity and the effects of antiepileptic GABA derivatives."
The main purpose of the staff and postgraduate students of the department is not only the preservation of the high level of the department, which has been achieved by our predecessors, but also meet new challenges of modernity, namely: confirmation of the scientific schools and research priorities, modernization of the department and its research and training capacity.