International relations 1865-1917




The Imperial Novorossiya University (INU) was founded and existed later on in accordance with the Russian Empire State universities Statutes of 1865 and 1883. 
Education and science were naturally the priorities in those Statutes, as the basis of country’s development in general and its’ Southern part in particular. The education and science development usually reaches their complete effectiveness in the conditions of their full openness and interaction with different scientific centers and separate progressive specialists in the country and worldwide.
The understanding of that conditioned the tools, which had been formed in Odessa University for collaboration with the foreign scientific and educational centers of Europe and the whole world. The fields of interaction between the home and foreign experts were conditioned by those time urgent challenges for different branches of educational, scientific, industrial and social development of the Russian Empire Southern part.
It is important to mention, that Novorossiya University, enough quickly occupied the prominent positions in the different scientific spheres due to its activity and collaboration with different scientific, civic and state organizations of Europe, America, Asia and Australia. Among them  were such state organizations, as British government, Belgium Consulate, Bulgarian Ministry of people’s education, Warsaw censorship commission, Warsaw statistic Committee, Greek phylloxera society in Constantinople,  The Geneva people’s education administration, Buenos Aires municipality, Romanian Ministry of the clergy affairs and people’s education, French Commandment. Our University also collaborated with such famous scientific institutions as Smithsonian Institution in Washington, Vatican Library, Congress Library (USA), British Museum, Zagreb (Yugoslavia) Academy, France history society, Finland society. The University was also linked with the civic organizations such as British Association of Scientific development, Warsaw community for the injured soldiers maintanance, Greek People’s Library in Athens, Greek Philological Syllog in Constantinople, Zoological society of France, Royal Society Victoria (Australia), The German naturalists and doctors society in  Frankfurt-am-Main, New South Wales Society, Carnegie Fund for teaching activity promotion (the USA).
Regardless time and epoch, much attention in the university was paid to the uprising of its’ lecturers’ scientific-educational level and to awareness of the home specialists and student’s in the foreign experience. Besides that   a lot of attention  was paid to   the University employees’ involving into  the process of cooperation with the leading experts and institutions worldwide. 
Fruitful, friendly and scientific links were developed with Athens University (Greece), Bodleian Library (Great Britain), Buenos Aires University (Argentina), Warsaw veterinary school (Poland), Warsaw University (Poland), Helsinki University (Finland), Greek University (Greece), Carnegie University (the USA), Copenhagen University (Denmark), Krakow University (Poland), University of Lille Nord de France (France), Melbourne University (Australia), Norway University of Christiania, Oxford University (Great Britain), Padua University (Italy), Pisa University (Italy), Kansas University (the USA), Tokyo University (Japan), French School in Athens (Greece), Edinburgh University (Scotland).Thus, the strong basis was laid for further fruitful collaboration with those institutions. 
The second part of XIX century was the period of various political and state transformations, mainly in the international environment,  thus attracting Novorossiya University’ researcher’s attention from the scientific point of view. Their activity demonstrated our University rise to the new qualitatively higher level within the system of interuniversity relations. Among the scientists-researchers of those transformations was P.Y. KAZANSKIY (1866-1947), ordinary Professor, Dr. of Science ( International Law) of the Novorossiya University Judicial department since 1899 (see photo 1). His scientific field included the international law issues, including the war, peace and legal aspects. At the same time, P.Y. KAZANSKIY paid much attention to the international administrative and civic law. He was awarded with the Golden medal of Moscow University Law department for his research “International Rivers Navigation”. In 1895 he went abroad, aiming to conduct his scientific research of such new formations of international law as international administrative organizations. As the result his three-volume Ph.D. thesis “General Administrative state Alliances” was prepared. That research laid the weighty basis for further scientific works in the international law field, which that time went through its formation period as the new independent subject.
Professor P.Y. KAZANSKIY
The geographical position of the Odessa region conditioned the key political role of the University as the center of the Balkans people’s life influence. The Northern Black Sea Coast linked culturally, ethnically and religiously to various nations,  being even parts of different empires. Nevertheless, the Slavic nations of Balkan Peninsula felt their affinity. That is why, INU scientists-historians, who conducted the researches on the history of the Balkans’ ethnic groups,  not only strengthen the research base of the University, but also improved the mutual understanding between peoples, similar by culture and language. Thus, since its foundation the University became the center of ideological impact on the Balkans’ nations. In the first years of the University’s existence Prof. V.I. GRIGOROVICH (1815-1892) became the key figure of the Slavic studies,  for  he was also the philologist, historian and one of the founders of Russian and Ukrainian Slavic Studies (see photo 2).
One of his first scientific works “Essay on the instructive trip to the European part of Turkey” (1848) contained the most important data on the Southern Slavs social anthropology, ethnical history together with   the history of the Slavic writing system. This book played the notable role in the Slavic Studies development and in the history of the Bulgarian National Renaissance.
The   INU experts’ scientific interests included also the political and state transformations in the Western European countries. The serious place within the system of historical researches was occupied both  by the studies related to the consequences of the French Revolution as the process that changed the economic, social and political system of the whole European civilization, and also by  other processes, which influenced much the development of those days’ European community and community worldwide.
The historian of the  new and newest history, publicist, sociologist O.S. TRACHEVSKIY (1838-1906) (see photo 3), during his work in Odessa published  numerous articles on the international policy  of the French Revolution period . In the INU O.S. TRACHEVSKIY became one of the founders of the French Revolution history Studies. He was one of the first, who used the documentary data of Russian archives for studying the Western Europe history. He prepared a lot of monographs on the general and Russian history, such as “Poland Interregnum”, textbook on history, “Pre-Revolution Germany and its unification”, “History of the XIX century Spain”, “Napoleon I. The First steps and the Consulate period, 1769-1804” etc. In his works TRACHEVSKIY completely enlightened the political, social, economical history and international relations issues. He also was one of the liberal-minded historians and was the member of the Paris-Russian School.
G.Y. AFANASYEV (see photo 4) who was the outstanding graduate of the Novorossiya University paid his attention to foreign countries life using their positive experience.   His Master’s and Doctor’s thesises’ respectively named “The key aspects of the Turgot Ministerial activity” (1884), “Bread trade conditions in France, XV111 century. (1892) covered the pre-Revolution France history aspects of XVIII cent. His numerous scientific articles were also dedicated to these issues. 
The value of his works was their basing on a great amount of archive materials and they used special attention by professionals (main of them were translated into the French). AFANASYEV managed to reveal some issues of the social and economic history of France, XVIII cent., thus having left a noticeable trace in the national history.  Some AFANASYEV’s works were published in France and in England.
G.Y. AFANASYEV was not honoured by professor’s rank in the INU and soon he was forced to leave his post, as a “politically unreliable” person. In 1896-1918 he headed the department of Russian Empire State Bank in Kyiv. Due to AFANASYEV’s efforts, the new building for the Bank was constructed in 1905 (nowadays the State Bank of Ukraine is placed there). Since May 3, 1918 he occupied the position of the Member of the First government. Since November 14, 1918 AFANASYEV was the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Ukrainian State. The last years of his life he spent in Belgrade.
The activity of the INU natural sciences specialists, who had the possibility to visit different countries for conducting their scientific researches, was also fruitful. Due to the experience, obtained from foreign colleagues they were able to conduct their own unique researches and to convey the western acquisitions on to the young home specialists.
Thus, on May 29, 1865 the astronomy docent L.BERKEVICH received the invitation from the German astronomer’s society to visit their sitting in the period of August 31 till September 2. The trip was supported by the University Council having been useful for the University as for the acquisition both the books and of the astronomy equipment for the University Observatory constructing. In the period of 1868 - 1869 the ordinary professor LEONTOVICH was sent twice to Warsaw: first time for acquaintance, and then for accepting and resending the Senator’s von-GUBE juridical library to our University. Docent VERIGO was sent abroad with the scientific purpose for 3 months term, ordinary professor N. SOKOLOV – for 5 months term, docent PATLAYEVSKIY – for 2 years. Since 1874 till 1975 several INU scientists also spent definite time abroad. Those, who gained the progressive  experience were: extraordinary professor UMOV – for 1 month, ordinary professor MECHNIKOV – for 2 months and 28 days, docent KONDAKOV (1 year and 5 months) and KOCHYUBINSKIY (1,5 year).
In 1876 Novorossiya University continued its collaboration with foreign institutions in different important directions, such as History, Physiology, and Chemistry etc. In that year several INU scientists went abroad on a scientific mission for different terms. Docent USPENSKIY – for lecturing on general history, laboratory assistant SPIRO – on physiology, ordinary professor VERIGO since April 20 till August 15 for the acquaintance  the  newly-equipped foreign chemistry laboratories; professors LIGYN, UMOV and VOLKOV and astronomer-observer BLOK – went  to London for visiting  the exhibition of the scientific equipment opened  in South- Kensington museum since June 1, till August 1  1876. 
In accordance with the plans of registration electric signals, the astronomer-observer BLOK visited Warsaw and Berlin for determining the control conditions in Berlin, and in Warsaw – the conditions for signals detection, circulating between Vienna, Berlin and Greenwich. The research workers participated  in the determination of the longitudinal  coordinates of the Novorossiya University’s Observatory. Numerous INU scientists went abroad on permission of the Public education Ministry since 1881 till 1882: docents PALAUZOV, GAMBAROV and laboratory assistant MELIKOV for 1 year, laboratory assistant VERNER – for 2 years, ordinary professor KOCHUBINSKIY – for the vacation time in 1882. Prof. BOGISHICH, lecturer in the Slavic legal history, went abroad for the period 1882 - 1883. Also in that period docent PIROGOV went abroad for 11 months since October 1, 1882, and docent TCHIZHOV went abroad since May 1, 1883, till September 1, 1884.
At the end of the XIX century the international background had undergone the new transformations, but the political situation in Europe contributed only to the process of the INU formation as the famous scientific center worldwide. Before 1871 the belt of the divided German States-Lands was stretched between the Russian Empire and that time Western European countries. These German Lands had neither financial, nor strategic necessity to develop the scientific collaboration. After 1871 the united Germany appeared at the European political map and became the link between the south-western lands (in future the Ukrainian) of the Russian Empire and developed Western European countries. That is why, the geography of the INU scientific collaboration also broadened.
Besides the traditional European direction, the new African (Egypt) and Latin American (Argentine) directions began to form. 
In respect to the mentioned before, since 1883 till 1884 numerous INU scientists visited their foreign colleagues. Among them: ordinary professors UMOV and KLIMENKO  together with  laboratory assistant GERYCH, visited the Vienna electric exhibition; ordinary professors KONDAKOV and USPENSKIY –worked in   Constantinople since April 25 and during  the vocation time in 1884; docent REP’YAKHOV and laboratory assistant GERYCH - for 1 year since September 1, 1884.  The laboratory assistant VERNER’s foreign mission term was extended for next 1 year since April 1. The ordinary professor TRACHEVSKIY was abroad with the scientific purpose since August 15 till October 15, 1884. The Honored ordinary professor S.P. YAROSHENKO and private-docent S. BUNITZKIY were invited to the International Congress of Mathematicians in Heidelberg in July 1904.
The 1908 was also fruitful for the INU scientists who went abroad on their scientific missions.  Professors E.R. von-STERN, A.A. PAVLOVSKIY and I.A. LINNICHENKO (see photo 5) visited the international Archaeological Congress held in Cairo (Egypt);  Prof. I.A. LINNICHENKO spent his summer vacation time in  Krakow and Vienna  continuing his work on the history of the relationships between Ancient  Russ and Poland; Prof. A.I.TOMSON was to Germany and France. S.D. PAPADIMITRIU and S.G. VILINSKIY worked in Bulgaria and in Moscow studying the Slavic translations of Greek mystics; Prof. I.A. LINNICHENKO went to Germany and Austria during his winter vacation time 1909/1910 having studying the archaeological museums system. I.A. LINNICHENKO visited the XVII Americanologists International Congress held in Buenos-Aires, May 1910. 
After 1912 the INU international activity successfully continued. Prof. I.A. LINNICHENKO, traditionally, during his summer vacation time visited Vienna, Krakow and Lviv, and also participated in the XIV International Congress on Anthropology and pre-historic archeology held in Geneva in September; Prof. PAVLOVSKIY participated in the X International Congress on the history of arts and to the International Archeological Congress held in Rome. It may be seen, that it has become a good University tradition for scientists to work abroad during their vacation time. Prof. LEBEDINSKIY was abroad since 1914 till August 1915. During their summer vacation time INU scientists Prof. LINNICHENKO, Prof. VILINSKIY, Prof. VARNEKE, private-docent LAZURSKIY, private-docent MANDES, private-docent BITZILLI, private-docent POTAPOV also worked abroad during their winter vacation time 1914/1915.
INU specialists used to publish their numerous articles in foreign scientific journals as the result of their international activity. Among them were works of docent Baron STUART, ordinary professor TZENKOVSKIY and ordinary professor MARKUZEN. 
The scientific achievements of INU specialists were highly estimated not only by home, but also by foreign scientists. Our University specialists contributed a lot into the European scientific schools development and that is why the western european universities’ specialists acknowledged their high scientific authority and the European high quality level of their researches. The fact of the high level of international confidence was proved by numerous mutual ceremonial events. The ordinary Professor SOKOLOV was elected as the acting Member of the German chemical society of Berlin in 1869. Berlin University Professor Rudolf FIRKHOV was elected as the Honored Member of the Imperial Novorossiya University since 1881 to 1882. The Vienna Academy Member, Vienna University ordinary professor France MIKLOSHICH was also elected as the Honored Member of the Imperial Novorossiya University.
Besides the mentioned previously activity, the INU scientists collaborated with their western european colleagues in the scopes of the scientific conferences and expeditions. The docent KLIMENKO’s article “About the ethyl lactic acid of butter” was mentioned in the protocols of the V Congress of the Russian natural scientists held in Warsaw. The ordinary professor of the Novorossiya University, acting Member of the Committee of the Odessa Experimental Field, A.I. NABOKIKH, together with his colleagues, the agronomists and geologists from Romania and Hungary, Prof. MURGOCHI and Dr. TREITZ, took part in several expeditions on soil science. The same type expedition had been carried out in May, 1908, where INU Professor TYMKO and Hungarian agronomist and geologist TREITZ actively participated. In June 1908 Professors MURGOCHI, TREITZ and TYMKO, having conducted the joint soil science expeditions in Russia, Romania and Hungary, prepared the plan of worldwide conference call of the soil scientists, aiming the elaboration of the normal terminology and classification of soils. Consequently, the Conference was carried out in Budapest at the Royal Geological Institute in 1909.
The European acknowledgement of our University was demonstrated by the numerous facts, when foreign secular and religious figures accepted the INU officials’ invitations to visit the University or expressed themselves the wish to get acquainted with the University’s activity. For example, Prince Karl Romanian visited the University on August 11, 1869. His Eminence, Metropolitan of Serbia, Mikhail, visited the University on September 22, 1869. Our University, in its turn, demonstrated its adherence to the course of openness and foreign experts’ involvement into the University’s scientific and educational activity, thus showing the high INU academic level. The prominent European scientists took the personal part in the researches and lecturing at the INU departments. For example, during the period of 1876-1877 the Berlin University professor, Dr. V. YAGICH, was appointed as the ordinary professor at the Slavic philology department. In 1883 the Great Britain citizen HERD was appointed as the lecturer of English language, and the Italian citizen De-VIVO – as an Italian language lecturer. The Paris Polytechnic School Professor Amadei MANGEIM was the Honored Member of the Imperial Novorossiya University. Professor of Warsaw University POZHARISKIY was lecturing on the forensic medicine at the INU Medical department. Also the Berlin Observatory director, Prof. FERSTER, gifted 4 volumes of observations made in Berlin Astronomy Observatory to our University.
The scientists of the Imperial Novorossiya University laid the strong basement for the further development of the University’s collaboration with the foreign scientific-educational institutions. Thus, they handed the baton of the further international collaboration to the next generations of scientists. That activity helped the University to overcome henceforth the majority of political, social and economical obstacles both in Russian Empire, which stopped its existence in 1917, and during the long period of so called “Ruin” in the scientific sphere, caused by the Soviet power policy and the tragic events of World War II.


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